The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) requires that the risk of transferred weapons being used to commit gender-based violence be taken into account in the granting or denial of exports licences. However, this risk is not stated as such in the criteria of the European Common Position, the European instrument for the assessment of arms exports (which is supposed to comply with the obligations of the ATT, following its recent revision). This Analysis explores the approach of EU states, all members of the ATT, to gender considerations in the assessment of their arms transfers. Furthermore, is there a unanimous definition of gender-based violence? And what methods are available to assess this risk in the European context?